Totem, Ritual dan Kesadaran Kolektif: Kajian Teoritik Terhadap Pemikiran Keagamaan Emile Durkheim

Sulthan Ahmad

Abstract


As a sociologist, Emile Durkheim has a different perspective in understanding religious behavior, including in interpreting totem rituals for Aboriginal tribes in Australia.  According to Durkheim, the ritual does not only have a religious meaning, but also a social meaning—having certain social functions for the performers.  Through a collective consciousness framed by a belief system and the same normative patterns, individual and social differences possessed by clan members can be relativized so as to create social unity.  In Aboriginal people, the totem is a symbol of the unification of clan societies.  Therefore, in such a ritual, the clan members feel united by an impersonal power that has full power over the clan.  By doing the ritual, clan members feel a strong bond with one another and a binding loyalty.  In the communal ceremony, the worshipers affirm their commitment to the clan as a form of clan solidarity.

Sebagai seorang sosiologi, Emile Durkheim memiliki perspektif yang berbeda dalam memahami perilaku keagamaan, termasuk dalam memaknai ritual totem pada suku Aborigin di Australia. Bagi Durkheim ritual totem tidak hanya memiliki makna keagamaan, tetapi juga makna sosial—ritual memiliki fungsi-fungsi sosial tertentu bagi pelakunya. Melalui kesadaran kolektif yang dibingkai oleh sistem keyakinan dan pola-pola normatif yang sama, perbedaan individu dan sosial yang dimiliki oleh anggota klan bisa direlatifkan sehingga tercipta kesatuan sosial. Pada suku Aborigin, totem merupakan simpol persautan masyarakat klan. Karenanya dalam ritual totem dimaksud, anggota klan merasa disatukan oleh sebuah kekuatan impersonal yang berkuasa penuh terhadap klan. Melalui ritual totem yang dilakukan, anggota klan merasakan ikatan yang kuat satu sama lain dan kesetiaan yang mengikat. Dalam upacara yang berlangsung secara komunal tersebut, para pemuja menegaskan komitmen mereka pada klan sebagai bentuk solidaritas klan.


Keywords


Collective Consciousness; Durkheim; Ritual; Totem.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.15548/al-adyan.v2i2.3384
Abstract views : 258 times
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) : 294 times

References


Damsar. (2015). Pengantar Teori Sosiologi. Jakarta: Prenada Group.

Daniel L. P. (2001). Seven Theories of Religion. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Qalam, 2001

Durkheim, E. (1995). The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. Translate with an Introduction by Karen E Fields. New York. London. Toronto. Sydney. Tokyo. Singapore: The Free Press.

Jenks, C. (2013). Culture. Studi Kebudayaan. Yogjakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Johnson, D. P. (1981). Sociological Theory: Classical Founders and Contemporary Perspectives. John Wiley & Sons.

Koentjaraniggrat. (1987). Sejarah Teori Antropologi I. Jakarta: UI-Press.

Putra, A. (2020). Konsep Agama dalam Perspektif Max Weber. Al-Adyan: Journal of Religious Studies. 1(1), 39-51.

Saifuddin. A. F. (2006) Antropologi Kontemporer: Suatu Pengantar Kritis Mengenai Paradigma. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.

Setiawan, R. (2013). Solidaritas Mekanik Ke Solidaritas Organik (Suatu Ulasan Singkat Pemikiran Emile Durkheim).Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji.

Soekanto, S. (2012). Sosiologi Suatu Pengantar. Jakarta: PT. Radja Grafindo Persada.

Syam, N. (2009). Mazhab-Mazhab Antropologi. Yogyakarta: LKiS.

Syamsuddin, M. (2017). Totemisme dan Pergeserannya: Studi Terhadap Tradisi Lokal di Sendang Mandong Klaten, Jawa Tengah. Jurnal Religi, 13(1), 96-116.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Departement Religious Studies of The Faculty Ushuluddin and Religious Studies State Islamic University Imam Bonjol Padang
Jl. M. Yunus No. 1, Lubuk Lintah, Kuranji. 
Kota Padang, Sumatera Barat 25153
E-mail: al-adyan@uinib.ac.id


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
https://pppi.sulselprov.go.id/-/slot-gacor/https://izv-tn.tti.sfedu.ru/-/slot-pulsa/http://dopovidi-nanu.org.ua/sites/default/files/slot-gacor/https://chasopys-ppp.dp.ua/public/site/slot-deposit-pulsa/https://www.ncst.mw/wp-content/uploads/slot-online/https://malawidiaspora.gov.mw/slot-deposit-pulsa/https://dopovidi-nanu.org.ua/ojs/styles/situs-slot-gacor/http://ojs3.bkstm.org/public/journals/1/togel-online/http://revistaaristas.tij.uabc.mx/public/link-slot-gacor/https://penerbit.undip.ac.id/pages/slot-deposit-pulsa/https://jurnal.madiunkab.go.id/pages/slot-gacor-4d/https://jurnal.madiunkab.go.id/public/site/slot-gacor-4d/https://perizinan.jambikota.go.id/frontend/web/slot-online/https://aar-healthcare.com/ke/wp-content/slot-dana/https://jurnal.madiunkab.go.id/pages/slot-gacor/http://ejournalbidan.poltekkes-kaltim.ac.id/slot-gacor-maxwin/https://sitenar.madiunkab.go.id/public/-/slot88/https://pendidikanbahasaindonesia.umnu.ac.id/-/slot-dana/https://perizinan.jambikota.go.id/frontend/web/slot/https://siagaki.sulselprov.go.id/frontend/slot88/https://peternakan.umnu.ac.id/-/slot-deposit-pulsa/https://datadesacenter.dpmd.jatimprov.go.id/puem/assets/https://datadesacenter.dpmd.jatimprov.go.id/assets/slot-pulsa/https://amerta.kemenkumham.go.id/file/slot-demo/https://www.ufrgs.br/nupegem/wp-content/slot-gacor/https://www.ufrgs.br/nupegem/slot-pulsa/https://188.166.227.65/http://prosiding.fisip.unsri.ac.id/-/slot-gacor/https://penerbit.undip.ac.id/-/slot-gacor/http://jurnal.amy.ac.id/public/-/slot-gacor/https://sipenta.bappeda.tulungagung.go.id/storage/slot-online/https://jurnalpangriptav3.malangkota.go.id/pages/slot-gacor-maxwin-4d/https://jurnalpangriptav3.malangkota.go.id/js/slot-deposit-pulsa-terpercaya/http://prosiding.fisip.unsri.ac.id/pages/slot-pulsa-terpercaya/http://prosiding.fisip.unsri.ac.id/js/slot-dana/https://kecamatanrancabali.bandungkab.go.id/public/css/slot-deposit-pulsa/https://jurnalpangriptav3.malangkota.go.id/demo-slot/https://jurnalpangriptav3.malangkota.go.id/-/joker123/http://prosiding.fisip.unsri.ac.id/pages/slot-bonus-100/https://jurnalpangriptav3.malangkota.go.id/styles/sv388/https://www.ufrgs.br/rbml/styles/slot-demo/https://kec-girimaya.pangkalpinangkota.go.id/-/slot-gacor/https://stisnu-aceh.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/2022/10/togel-online/https://ptik.unp.ac.id/wp-content/slot-deposit-pulsa/https://www.ufrgs.br/rbml/-/bola88/https://siagaki.sulselprov.go.id/frontend/slot-gacor/https://siagaki.sulselprov.go.id/frontend/slot-online/https://paper.icprp.uii.ac.id/public/togel-online/https://jescee.universitaspertamina.ac.id/pages/slot-dana/https://wirausaha.deliserdangkab.go.id/https://www.ufrgs.br/rbml/pages/pragmatic88/https://kecamatanrancabali.bandungkab.go.id/public/css/slot-online/https://paper.icprp.uii.ac.id/public/slot88/https://jurnalergonomik3.ti.itb.ac.id/js/https://penerbit.undip.ac.id/js/slot-deposit-pulsa/https://paper.icprp.uii.ac.id/public/slot-deposit-pulsa/https://penerbit.undip.ac.id/styles/slot/https://subdomainmaker.deliserdangkab.go.id/-/slot-gacor/https://ptik.unp.ac.id/wp-content/themes/slot-pulsa/https://paper.icprp.uii.ac.id/public/slot-gacor-maxwin/https://www.kecamatankutawaringin.bandungkab.go.id/public/slot777/http://prosiding.fisip.unsri.ac.id/pages/link-slot-gacor/https://dcs-ditkapel.dephub.go.id/storage/slot-deposit-pulsa/https://dcs-ditkapel.dephub.go.id/storage/slot-dana/https://www.ufrgs.br/nupegem/slot-pulsa/https://jurnalergonomik3.ti.itb.ac.id/js/slot-dana/