Subhan Ajrin Sudirman


Within the scope of the organization, a number of studies have revealed the positive impact of spirituality for the organization. As many experts point out that spirituality in the workplace benefits organizations at least at two levels, organizational levels and individual levels. The influence of spirituality on the organizational level can be related to work attitude of employees, leadership, culture and organizational performance. At the individual level, spirituality can positively affect the physical, mental and personal effectiveness of the individual. Numerous studies have shown that organizations that pay attention to spirituality have an effect on performance improvement. The issue of spirituality and the scope of the individual is related to the need of the individual in obtaining the meaning, the most important meaning, or the deepest meaning and tranquility in his life and the needs of the environment that can support his own potential growth. Environmental circumstances, both micro environments, such as workplaces and the national and global community environments referred to as full of competitive circumstances have put great pressure on and push the need for spirituality to manage themselves through mechanisms that give meaning and awareness of the purpose of life.


Spirituality, servant leadership, leader performance

Full Text:


Abstract views : 353 times
PDF : 763 times


Abidin, M. (2002). Filsafat manusia, memahami manusia melalui filsafat. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Aburdane, P. (2006). Filsafat manusia, memahami manusia melalui filsafat. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Ashar, H. & Lane-Maher, M. (2002). Spirituality in the Workplace-a Measure of Success? the Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, 3 (3), 191-204.

Ashmos, D. P. & Duchon, D. (2000). Spirituality at work: a conceptualization and measure. Journal of Management Inquiry, 9 (2), 134-145.

Barbuto, J. E. & Wheeler, D. W. (2006). Scale development and construct clarification of servant leadership. Group & Organization Management, 31 (3), 300-326.

Boyum, G. (2006). The historical and philosophical influences on greenleaf’s concept of servant leadership setting the stage for scientific theory building. Servant Leadership Research Roundtable, School of Leadership Regent University. Tersedia: (25 Mei 2017).

Bruce, W. (2000). Spirituality in public service. International Journal of Organizational Theory & Behavior, 3 (3 & 4), 599-632.

Carlin, B. D. (2006). Spiritual formation in women: a theoretical examination of christian spirituality and self-concept (master’s thesis). the Faculty of Psychological Studies Institute, Atlanta, Georgia.

Carol, S. (2005). Servant leadership. the leadership theory of Robert k. Greenleaf. (Ebook). The Greenleaf Center for Servant-Leadership UK.

Cerff, K. & Winston, B. E. (2006). The inclusion of hope in the servant leadership model an extension of Patterson and winston’s models. Servant Leadership Research Roundtable, School of Leadership Regent University. Tersedia: (27 Mei 2017)

Cobb, R. K. (2008). How well does spirituality predict health status in people living with Hiv-disease? (Doctoral Dissertation). Virginia Commonwealth University. Virginia Commonwealth University Richmond, Virginia.

Compton, W. C. (2005). An introduction to positive psychology. Thomson. Wadsworth.

DeGroot, T.; Kiker, D. S.; & Cross, T. C. (2000). A meta-analysis to review organizational outcomes related to charismatic leadership. Canadian Journal of Administration Sciences, 17, 235-371.

Djalil, S. A. (2000). Good corporate governance. Makalah Seminar Corporate Governance di Universitas Sumatera Utara pada tanggal 26 Juni 2000.

Elkins, S. D, N.; Hedstrom, L. J.; Hughes, L. L.; Leaf, L. A.; & Cheryl. (1998). Toward a humanistic-phenomenological spirituality: definition, description, and measurement. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 28 (4), 5-18.

Fabry, J. B. (1980). The pursuit of meaning, Victor Frankl, Logotherapy, and Life, Harper & Row Publishers, San Francisco.

Farling, M. L.; Stone, A. G.; & Winston, B. E. (1999). Servant leadership setting the stage for empirical research. Journal of Leadership Studies, 6, 49-72.

Fernando, F. & Jackson, B. (2006). The influence of religion-based workplace spirituality on business leaders’ decision-making: an inter-faith study. Journal of Management & Organization, 12 (1), 23-39.

Ferguson, N. (2007). CAMPS & Spirituality. The camping Magazine. 80 (2), 18-24.

Fry, L. W. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 693-727.

Gauby, S. F. (2008). The effect of fasting upon the development of servant leaders. Servant Leadership Research Roundtable – May 2008 School of Global Leadership and Entrepreneurship Regent University.

Geyer, A. L. J. & Steyrer, J. M. (1998). Transformational leadership and obejective performance in banks. Applied psychology. An International Review, 47, 397-420.

Goh, S. C. (2001). The learning organization: an empirical test of a normative perspective. International Journal of Organizational Theory & Behavior, 4 (3&4), 329-355.

Gotsis, G. & Kortezi, Z. (2008). Philosophical foundations of workplace spirituality: a critical approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 78, 575-600.

Greenleaf, R. K. (1996). On becoming a servant-leader. Ed by Don M. Frick & Larry C. Spears, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publisher.

Gulick, D. S. (2004). The evolution of spiritual counsciosness: interface between integral science and spirituality. Past and Emerging World Futures, 60, 335-341.

Hanif, R. & Pervez, S. (2004). Development and validation of teachers’ job performance scale. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 19 (3-4), 89-104.

Harrington, W. J.; Preziosi, R. C.; & Gooden, D. J. (2001). Perceptions of workplace spirituality among professionals and executives. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 13 (3), 155-163.

Hartsfield, M. (2003). The internal dynamics of transformational leadership. Effects of spirituality, emotional intelligence, and self-efficacy. (Doctoral dissertation). School of Leadership Studies. Regent University Drive Virginia Beach. ProQuest Information and Learning Company. 300 North Zeeb Road. PO. Box 1346. Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346.

Harvey, M. (2001). The hidden force: a critique of normative approaches to business leadership. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 66, 36-48.

Heaton, D. P.; Schmidt-Wilk, J.; & Travis, F. (2004). Constructs, methods, and measures for researching spirituality in organizations. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17 (1), 62-82.

Hebert, S. C. (2003). The relationship of perceived servant leadership and job satisfaction from the follower’s perspective. (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University.

Helland, M. R. & Winston, B. E. (2005). Towards a deeper understanding of hope and leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 12 (2), 42-56.

Hodge, D. R. (2006). A template for spiritual assessment: a review of the JCAHO requirements and guidelines for implementation. Social Work, 51 (4), 317-326.

Howell, J. M. & Avolio, B. J. (1993). Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, locus of control, and support for innovation: key predictors of consolidated-bussiness unit performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 891-902.

Hynes, T.; Winnipeg; Mahaffey, M. T.; & Wright, B. (2002). Modelling higher education effects on student spirituality. ASAC, Ken MacAulay University of Manitoba.

Irving, J. A. (2005). Servant leadership and the effectiveness of teams. (Doctoral dissertation). Regent University School of Leadership Studies. UMI Microform 3173207. Copyright 2005. By ProQuest Information and Learning Company.

Jalaluddin. (2008). Psikologi agama; memahami perilaku keagamaan dengan mengaplikasikan prinsip-prinsip psikologi. Edisi Revisi. Jakarta: PT. Rajagrafindo Persada.

Jensen, S. M. (2003). Enterpreneurs as leaders: imapact of psychological capital and perception of authentic on venture performance. (Doctoral dissertation). The Graduate College at the University of Nebraska.

Johari, J. & Yahya, K. K. (2009). Linking organizational structure, job characteristics, and job performance constructs: a proposed framework. International Journal of Bussiness and Management, 4 (3), 145-152.

Jurkiewicz, C. L. & Giacalone, R. A. (2004). A values framework for measuring the impact of workplace spirituality on organizational performance. Journal of Bussiness Ethics, 49 (2), 129-142.

Kaihatu, T. S. (2006). Good corporate governance dan penerapannya di Indonesia. Jurnal Manajemen dan Kewirausahaan, 8 (1), 1-9.

Keller, J. (2008). An integrative theory of motivation, volition, and performance. Technology Institute Cognition and Learning, 6, 79-104.

Keraf, S. (2002). Krisis moral sumber krisis bangsa. Jakarta, Kompas Jumat, 15 Februari 2002. Tersedia: (19 Mei 2017).

King, J. E. & Crowther, M. R. (2004). The measurement of religiousity and spirituality examples and issues from psychology. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17 (1), 26-42.

Kinjerski, V. M. & Skrypnek, B. J. (2004). Defining spirit at work: finding common ground. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17 (1), 26-42.

Koenig, H. G.; McCullough, M. E.; Larson, D. B. (2001). Handbook of religion and health. Oxford University Press.

Kurz, N. M. (2006). The relationship between teachers’ sense of academic optimism and commitment to the profession. (Doctoral dissertation). The Graduate School of the Ohio State University. The Ohio State University.

Laub, J. (2004). Defining servant leadership: a recommended typology for servant leadership studies. Servan Leadership Research Roundtable-School of Leadership Regent University. Tersedia: (21 Mei 2017).

Marques, J. F.; Dhiman, S.; & King, R. (2005). Spirituality in the workplace: developing an integral model and comprehension. Journal of American Academy of Bussiness, Cambridge, 7 (1), 81-91.

Marques, J. F. (2007). The reciprocity between spirituality in the workplace and thinking outside the box. Bussiness Renaissance Quarterly, 2 (3), 93-117.

Mayer, J. D. (2000). Spiritual intelligence or spiritual consciousness? The International Journal for the Psychology Religion, 10 (1), 47-56.

Mayhew, M. J. (2004). Exploring the essence of spirituality: a phenomenological study of eight students with eight different worldviews, NASPA Journal, 41 (2), 647-674.

Milla, M. N. (2009). Dinamika psikologis perilaku terorisme, identitas dan pengambilan keputusan jihad di luar wilayah konflik pada terpidana kasus bon bali di Indonesia. (Disertasi). Program Doktor Psikologi Fakultas Psikologi UGM.

Miller, E. D. (2004). The development and validation of a new measure of spirituality. North American Journal of Psychology, 6 (3), 423-430.

Milliman, J.; Czaplewski, A. J.; & Ferguson, J. (2003). Workplace spirituality and employee work attitudes: an exploratory empirical assessment. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16 (4), 426-447.

Mitroff, I. I. & Denton, E. A. (1999). Study of spirituality in the workplace. Sloan Management Review, Summer 1999, 40 (4), 83-92.

Moore, T. W. & Casper, W, J. (2006). An examination of proxy measures of workplace spirituality: a profil model of multidimensional constructs. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 12 (4), 109-118.

Muhammad, A. A.; Wisnieski, J.; Aska, M.; & Syed, I. (2004). Towards a theory of spirituality in workplace, CR, 14 (1&2), 102-107.

Naisbitt, J & Aburdence, P (1990). Megatrends, 2000; sepuluharah baru untuk tahun 1990-an. Jakarta: Binaupa Aksara.

Neal, J. A. (1997). Spirituality in management education: a guide to resources. Journal of Management Education, 21 (1), 121-139.

Neal, J. & Biberman, J. (2004). Research that matters: helping organizations integrate spiritual values and practices. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17 (1), 7-10.

Oliveira, A. (2006). The place of spirituality in organizational theory. Electronic Journal of Bussiness Ethics and Organization, 2 (2), 17-21.

Ostrem, L. M. (2006). Servant leadership and work-related outcomes: a multilevel model. (Doctoral dissertation). Regent University School of Leadership Studies.

Passer, M. W. & Smith, R. E. (2004). Psychology. The science of mind behavior. Mc Graw Hill.

Patterson, K. A. (2003a). Servant leadership: a theoretical model.(Doctoral Dissertation). Regent University School of Leadership Studies.

Patterson, K. A. (2003b). Servant leadership: a theoretical model. Servant leadership research roundtable-school of leadership regent university. Tersedia: (20 Mei 2017).

Piedmont, R. L. (1999). Does spirituality represent the sixth factor of personality? Spiritual transcendence and the five-factor model. Journal of Personality, 67 (6), 985-1013.

Petchsawanga, P. & Duchon, D. (2012). Workplace spirituality, meditation, and work performance. Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 9 (2), 189-208.

Rinaldi, T.; Purnomo.; & Damayanti, D. (2007). Memerangi korupsi di Indonesia yang terdesentralisasi, Studi kasus penanganan korupsi pemerintahan daerah. Justice for the Poor Project, Bank Dunia.

Russell, R. F. & Stone, A. G. (2002). A review of servant leadership attributes: developing a practical model. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23 (3), 145-157.

Rychlak, J. F. (1997). In defense of human consciousness. American Psychological Association. Washington, DC.

Sanders, J. E.; Hopkins, W. E.; & Geroy, G. D. (2004). Spirituality leadership-commitment relationship in the workplace: an Exploratory assessment. Academy of Management Best Conference Paper.

Santrock, J. W. (2005). Psychology. Updated Seventh Edition. Mc Graw Hill.

Sarver, A. N. (2005). The effect of religiosity and spirituality on transformational leadership characteristics of hospital food and nutrition managers. (Master’s thesis). Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food Science. Masters of Nutritional Science Brigham Young University.

Seligman, M. E. P.; Tracy, A.; Park, N.; Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress empirical validation of intervention. American Psychologist. The American Psychological Association, 60 (5), 410-421.

Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. In Handbook of Positive Psychology. Ed. By C. R. Snyder & Shane J. Lopez. Oxford University Press.

Sendjaya, S & Sarros, J. C. (2002). Servant leadership: it’s origin development, and application in organizations. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9 (2), 57-64.

Sendjaya, S.; Sarros, J. C.; & Santora, J. C. (2008). Defining and measuring servant leadership behavior in organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 45 (2), 2322-2380.

Sheehan, J. P. (2007). Multi-dimensional outcome measures of fm system usage in places of worship (doctoral dissertation). The Graduate School of the University of Florida.

Sheep, M. L. (2006). Nurturing the whole person: the ethics of workplace spirituality in a society of organizations. Journal of Bussiness Ethics, 66, 357-375.

Smith, B. N.; Montagno, R. V.; & Kuzmenko, T. N. (2004). Transformational and servant leadership: content and contextual comparisons. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 10 (4), 81-90.

Smith, J. A. & Rayment, J. J. (2007). The global smp fitness framework a guide for leaders exploring the relevance of spirituality in the workplace. Management Decision, 45 (2), 217-234.

Spears. L. C. (2005). The understanding and practice of servant leadership. Servant Leadership Research Roundtable. School of Leadership Regent University. Tersedia: (20 Mei 2017).

Srinivasan, M. S. (2003). The meeting of business and spirituality: its evolutionary significance. Journal of Human Values, 9, 65-73. Tersedia: SAGE Publication. (21 Mei 2017).

Tischler, L.; Beberman, J.; & McKeage, R. (2002). Linking emotional intelligence, spirituality, and workplace performance: definition, models, and ideas for research. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17 (3), 203-218.

Twigg, N. W.; Wyld, D.; & Brown, G. (2001). Quest for fire: a redefinition and reconceptualization of spirituality at work. Insights to a Changing World Journal, 15 (March). Tersedia: (18 Mei 2017).

Walumbwa, F. O.; Lawler, J. J.; Avolio, B. J.; Wang, P.; & Shi, K. (2005). Transformational leadership and work-related attitudes: the moderating effect of collective and self-efficacy across cultures. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 11 (3), 2-16.

Washington, R. R.; Sutton, C. D.; & Field, H. S. (2006). Individual differences in servant leadership: the roles of values and personality. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27 (8), 700-716.

Wheelan, T. L. & Hunger, J. D. (1992). Strategic management and business policy. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc.

Wigglesworth, C. (2004). Spiritual intelligence and why it matters. Spirit in Work 2. Tersedia: (22Mei 2017).

Wilber, K. (2000). Integral psychology. Counsciousness, spirit, psychology, therapy. Shambala: Boston & London.

Yuntho, E. (2006). Tim koordinasi pemberantasan korupsi: antara harapan dan kekhawatiran. Tersedia: (17 Mei 2017).

Zohar, D. & Marshal, I. (2000). SQ: spiritual quotient. the ultimate intelligence. Jakarta: Mizan.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Ruang Jurnal,
Fakultas Ushuluddin dan Studi Agama,
UIN Imam Bonjol Padang
Jl. Mahmud Yunus No.6,Lubuk Lintah,
Kota Padang, Sumatra Barat


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.